Access to improved sources of water and sanitation is a basic human right and essential for the holistic socio-economic development of any individual, community and nation at large. Use of unimproved sources of water and sanitation facilities lead to unhygienic lifestyles which eventually accelerate the prevalence and spread of water-borne diseases, many of which are also fatal.
One of the major problems in India is the open defecation. India has a high prevalence of water and sanitation related diseases, causing high mortality particularly among children. Water and sanitation facilities can bring about the intention to change hygiene behaviour, but importantly appropriate hygiene education is needed to allow people to transform intention into real change.
If we want to reduce the incidence of sanitation and hygiene-related diseases, and to protect the natural environment, three factors have to be addressed for positive lasting changes
Need of the community:
The family, are most important places of for children; they have a central place in the community and are a stimulating learning environment for children to initiate change. If sanitary facilities in houses are available, they can act as a model. Since through their children schools are in touch with a large proportion of the households in a community.
It is generally recognized that childhood is the best time for children to learn hygiene behaviours. Children are futures parents and what they learn is likely to be applied in the rest of their lives.
Are as follows:
- Predisposing factors - knowledge, attitude and belief;
- Enabling factors - availability of resources like latrine facilities and safe water supply, enabling students to transform newly acquired knowledge, attitudes and beliefs into desirable behaviours;
- Reinforcing factors - affecting the students’ ability to sustain a certain behaviour, like support and cooperation received from parents, guardians and peer groups.
When knowledge is supported by enabling and reinforcing factors, desirable changes may occur in the school setting and in the community. This stresses the importance of combining hygiene education with the construction of water and environmental sanitation facilities and involving the community and health institutions in School Sanitation and Hygiene programme.
- Participatory needs assessment involving students, teachers, parents and community members to be conducted in 1000 families of the total population schools.
- Geographical impact - This will include mapping of the community need all issues related to water supply and sanitation. Based on this map, the problems will be discussed and possible solutions identified with the community. In the assessment community and stakeholders will be asked to indicate which of the solutions are low cost and short term, and which are high cost and only achievable in the long term. An immediate result of this procedure is that students and teachers realize they can do far more than they think. Followed by self-improvement, such as collecting money from parents to buy a waste basket to be used in the toilets, and using part of the house budget.
- Assessment of the hygiene behaviour of community -This will include understanding the availability of safe drinking and its handling and storage. Children using latrines for urination and defecation, washing hands after defecation and before handling food. Simple observation followed by a survey with a sample population will give a fair assessment of this.
- Formulation of objectives
The main objectives of this programme are to make the pupils aware of the importance of sanitation and to show them that with a good organization they can influence sanitation in a positive manner. Bringing about behavioural changes in children, towards sanitation is the larger objective in this context.
Behaviour Change Communication
The program will promote effective hygiene practices through locally based education using Behavior Change Communication (BCC) on healthy practices like hand washing, encourage a green environment, waste management, discourage open defecations. The following materials will be disseminated –
- Sanitation and environment reading and activity material
- Sanitation and hygiene charter
- Flip charts
- Hygiene education for students and teachers
It is important that hygiene education is incorporated in the school curriculum and a discussion takes place on hygiene education with relevant common material being used by children for activities during morning assemblies and other cultural events. It is important, that good quality materials used by teachers and children. Teaching materials will be based and built upon the existing situation in school. This should be carried by the students to school at least once a week. Involvement of students in planning, implementation and maintenance; Students checking each other for personal hygiene, organizing extracurricular activities and conducting surveys in the community.
- Formulation of an action plan
Plan formulation will be done through the need based assessment and community participation.
Training for technical staff and stakeholders– 2 workshops
In order to become effective promoters and implementers, teachers require a certain level of hygiene awareness and commitment. This includes: a working knowledge of the relation between water, sanitation, hygiene behaviour and health; skills to work with students in a participatory way; commitment to bring about improvement themselves. For bringing about or facilitating improvements in the water and sanitation situation, teachers will need to know how and where to apply for assistance, how to mobilize community members, etc.
I. Implementation Model
Approach towards the program is based on developing a holistic model, which emphasizes on the ‘construction of toilets’, not as an end to the problem but rather viewing it as a means to address the larger issues of education, health, hygiene, dignity and gender equality.
Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)
A comprehensive M&E framework will be develop to track the project activities. Effective monitoring system will be established for the project with reporting structure and clear timeline. The M&E framework will include the following:
- Develop a monitoring framework to capture the progress and outcomes based on the agreed indicators
- Carry out field visits and desk-based review of project progress
- Prepare monthly and quarterly updates for the Task Force Review
- Manage the day-to-day interactions with the partners
- Consolidate and analyse learning from the field
- Prepare a consolidated end-of-pilot project report
The impact assessment would be conducted to analyze the current status of program to provide the evidence before the designing program and results can then be compared with a baseline assessment. The impact measurement can employ both quantitative as well as qualitative methods. Mix of approaches would be used considering the requirements of the measurement.
Some of the key matrices against our outputs are as follows:
||Key Performance Indicators
|Access to sanitation facilities including toilet to target beneficiaries in selected schools. || |
- Number of toilet constructed in each house hold
- Decrease in incidence of drop-out in school, particularly girl students
Improved functioning of School sanitation for delivering quality services
- Number of household having the toilet and other sanitation facilities
- Percentage of population Increased number of sanitation facilities in identified village community
|Increased awareness on sanitation and hygiene services || |
- Number of students using toilet facilities
- Students are well aware of sanitation and hygiene issues and develop healthy and hygienic behaviour thereby preventing illness and diseases
|Improved capacity of various functionaries on sanitation and hygiene || |
- No of school functionaries like teacher/other staff trained by the project.
- Involvement of functionaries in the activities of project
- Percentage of constructed toilets and other sanitation facilities operated and maintained by schools
- Involvement of different stakeholder in the project (School Management Committee, teachers etc.)
- Number of networking meetings with different stakeholders
PROPOSED TOILET BUDGET
| SL.NO ||DESCRIPTION OF WORKS ||AMOUNT(INR)||US $|
| 1 || Labour Charge ||2200||33.92|
| 2 || Transportation ||1000||15.42|
| 3 || Painting cost ||1050||16.19|
| 4 || Sand materials for slab ||2000||30.84|
| 5 || Cement ||2000||30.84|
| 6 || 450 Bricks( Rs. 20 per brick) ||6000||92.51|
| 7 || Sand ||3000||46.26|
| 8 || Steel bar ||1000||15.42|
| 9 || Pipes and Door ||1500||23.13|
| Unit Price ||19750 ||304.53|
| Quantity ||1000 |
| Total ||19750000 ||304525.45|
One US Dollar= INR Rs. 64.09